The people who call themselves “the Xoŋry” comprise not a single people and language, but rather a
The main differences between nearby dialects of Xoŋry are largely simple matters of phonology; local variants of the name of the language demonstrate the phenomenon well:
The truly fascinating thing about Xoŋry dialects is the apparent
Xoŋry has an impressive, even remarkable array of consonants
I have limited my initial foray into the pulmonic sound symbolism of Xoŋry to a single bound, but productive, morpheme of the dialect with the most speakers.5 The morpheme in question is
The data, as always, speaks for itself:6
|voiceless oral ingressive + “consume”||voiced oral ingressive + “consume”|
|“to put in the mouth, without talking”||“to put in the mouth, while talking”|
|voiceless oral egressive + “consume”||voiced oral egressive + “consume”|
|“to spit out or take out of the mouth, without talking”||“to spit out or take out of the mouth, while talking”|
|voiceless nasal ingressive + “consume”||voiced nasal ingressive + “consume”|
|“to smell, without talking”||“to smell, while talking”|
|voiceless nasal egressive + “consume”||voiced nasal egressive + “consume”|
|“to blow out the nose, without talking”||“to blow out the nose, while talking”|
|voiceless oral implosive + “consume”||voiced oral implosive + “consume”|
|“to devour, without talking”||“to devour, while talking”|
|voiceless oral ejective + “consume”||voiced oral ejective + “consume”|
|“to projectile vomit, without talking”||“to projectile vomit, while talking”|
Xoŋry features a heretofore unknown constellation of phonemes that I have collectively labeled “gastro-
|voiceless oral ingestive + “consume”||voiced oral ingestive + “consume”|
|“to eat, without talking”||“to eat, while talking”|
|voiceless nasal ingestive + “consume”||voiced nasal ingestive + “consume”|
|“to snort up the nose, without talking”||“to snort up the nose, while talking”|
|voiceless oral egestive + “consume”||voiced oral egestive + “consume”|
|“to vomit, without talking”||“to vomit, while talking”|
|voiceless nasal egestive + “consume”||voiced nasal egestive + “consume”|
|“to vomit through the nose, without talking”||“to vomit through the nose, while talking”|
Other Xoŋry roots that follow a similar pattern with the obvious meanings attached to their sound symbolism include: /-brakadabra/, “turn left”; /-umplstltskn/, “roll three or more 8- or 12-
There are several other instances of non-
There are rumors of a nearby tribe, a mere thirty-
More research is necessary to unravel the intricacies of this system. Said research will require more and abundant funding.
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Clacker, Clickety. 1622. Cationsitens ares of aftence ge, psionfustuatenterences. Eng Evis Forigh Worics: Paris, London
Ertel, S. and S. Dorst. 1965. Expressive Lautsymbolik. Zeitschrift experimentelle Psychologie 12: 557-569.
Flïrtïstïk, Fluee. 1991. Pulmonicity. Fluidity and Flow 34: 55-732
Hellwag, C. 1791. De formatione loquelae. Tübingen.
Hilmer, H. 1914. Schallnachahmung, Wortschopfung und Bedeutungswandel. Halle.
Householder, F. W. 1962. Azerbaijani Onomatopes, in: Poppe, N. (ed.), American Studies in Altaic Linguistics. 115-121.
Imack-O’Wack, Smackercrack. 1944. Sound Symbolism in Symbolic Sounds.
Magnus, M. 1999. Gods of the Word: Archetypes in the Consonants. Truman State University Press.
Sprinkles, Sprite. 2004. Gladly Glowing in the Glistening Gloaming: Sound Symbolism and Alliterative Allusions. Seven For More Options Press: Boston, Beijing, Bloomington.
von Humboldt, Wilhelm. 1863. Über die Verschiedenheit des menschlichen Sprachbaues und ihren Einfluß auf die geistige Entwicklung des Menschengeschlechts.
Wissemann, H. 1954. Untersuchungen zur Onomatopoiie. Carl Winter Universitätsverlag: Heidelberg.
Xerxes, Zöe. 1822. Onomatopöÿï. Glitt Glurr: Scotland.
|Claude Searsplainpockets||Somewhere in the Middle East|
0 This paper was made
possible by LAME grant QWERTYUIOP-
1 Most tribes number 25 or fewer speakers.
2 Most of the lexicons I have recorded include well over 150,000 distinct lexical items.
3 Such as trivial matters of whether the dialect has prepositions or postpositions, makes the distinction between inclusive- and exclusive-
4 A special case of so-
5 Between 57 and 88, depending on who does the counting.
6 We use a caron to indicate ingressiveness, and a ring below to indicate voicelessness, when no other standard symbol exists.
7 We use an acute accent to indicate ingestive, and a grave accent to indicate egestive.
8 As an aside, Xoŋry features at least two discourse particles that are primarily used (a) to add air to the stomach for egestives
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